HIHD - Historical Index of Human Development


Human Development

Human wellbeing is widely viewed as a multidimensional phenomenon, in which income is only one facet. Human development, originally defined as a process of enlarging people’s choices, namely, enjoying a healthy life, acquiring knowledge and achieving a decent standard of living, provides a multidimensional measure of wellbeing.

These achievements provide individuals with freedom to choose and the opportunity to lead their own lives. Thus, human development can be depicted as positive freedom by which individuals are granted access to resources, including property, that allow them to develop their personal potential.

In order to provide a synthetic measure of human development, its different dimensions are expressed in index form… [Read more…]

Leandro Prados de la Escosura


Leandro Prados-de-la-Escosura (Spain, 1951), D. Phil. (Oxford University) and Ph.D. (Universidad Complutense, Madrid), Professor of Economic History and Researcher at the Figuerola Institute at Universidad Carlos III, Madrid. He is also a Research Fellow at the Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR), a Research Associate at the Centre for Competitive Advantage in the Global Economy (CAGE), and Corresponding Fellow of Spain’s Royal Academy of History.

He has taught at Georgetown University (Prince of Asturias Professor) and the University of California, San Diego. He has been a Visiting Fellow at All Souls College, Oxford and the London School of Economics, and a Jean Monnet Fellow at the European University Institute. During the academic year 2013-14 he was Leverhulme Professor at the London School of Economics. He has been appointed Honorary Maddison Chair at the University of Groningen (2015-2019).  [Read more…]

Historical Index of Human Development


HIHD by Countries


Chart and Table Composition

HIHD Dimensions


Chart and Table Composition

HIHD by Region


Dynamic Map

Methodology (Sources and Procedures)


Life expectancy is defined as “the average number of years of life which would remain for males and females reaching the ages specified if they continued to be subjected to the same mortality experienced in the year(s) …  [Read more…]



HIHD Data Base. Download Historical Index of Human Development tables (Excel)